Acronyms & Definitions of Fish Related Names Used by Fish Management
For some newcomers
(and even old-timers) to the world of fishing & fish management, listed below are
fish related names and descriptions or explanations as to their usage to
help you better understand
LIST OF TERMS USED IN FISH MANAGEMENT
The small fin on the top just in front of the tail of salmonoid fish. This fin is clipped on most all of the released hatchery fish, distinguishing them from wild fish. This identification method is later used on mature returning fish to protect the wild (unclipped) ESA listed fish. The above process is sometimes called Mass Marking because of the volume now being done.
An often over-looked sexual characteristic in Pacific salmon is the enlarged adipose fin on mature males, typically 2-3 time larger than on female fish.
models, the AHA system, (All H. Analyzer) which is abbreviated for
"Hatchery, Harvest, Habitat, Hydro"
is used (using WDFW data) to calculate PNI (percentage of natural Influence) in broodstock, which is pHOB plus pNOS
|Anadromous||Fish that are born in freshwater, migrate to the ocean to grow and mature, and return to freshwater as adults to reproduce.|
|Bi-Op||Biological Opinions. This is generally related to the responsibility for recovering threatened and endangered species with "the best available science."|
That act or activities associated with the utilization (retention and non-retention) of fish for cultural, consumptive, commercial and/or recreational purposes.
|Healthy and Harvestable||A self-sustaining naturally produced stock that has attained a status that will support meaningful retention and non-retention fisheries on an annual basis.|
|Natural Production||Natural production refers to fish that spawn and rear entirely in the natural environment. These fish may be the offspring of natural or hatchery production.|
Harvest in regards to fishing, is the ability of a fishing operation to
avoid non-target species or stocks, or when encountered, to capture and
release them in a manner that minimizes mortality.
Where there are
mixed stocks and/or mixed species present, the fisheries should be
appropriately managed to meet the conservation needs of the “weakest
The objective harvesting goal of hatchery salmon and trout (fin clipped) while at the same time, is allowing wild (unclipped) to escape and spawn in their native streams. Any harvest of our public resource needs to be monitored with seasons and bag limits for ALL stakeholders and set for a sustained or increased population, with emphasis placed on conservation if there is any question.
WFDW regulations in many areas require the fisherperson to not remove the unclipped adipose fined fish from the water & release it with as little damage as possible, trying to eliminate a post release mortality.
consists of nine members serving six-year terms. Members are
appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate. Three
members must reside east of the summit of the Cascade mountains, three
must reside west of the summit, and three may reside anywhere in the
state. No two Commissioners may reside in the same county.
While the Commission has several responsibilities, its primary role is to establish policy and direction for fish and wildlife species and their habitats in Washington and to monitor the Department's implementation of the goals, policies and objectives established by the Commission.
The Commission receives its authority from the passage of Referendum 45 by the 1995 Legislature and public at the 1995 general election. The Commission is the supervising authority for the Department.
|Director||Hopefully a person with great experience and wisdom in fish management with the ability to organize a large department, who is charged by the "Commission" to oversee the day by day operations of WDFW|
|Regions||Washington State is divided up into 6 different regions, each overseen by a regional director. #1 Eastern, #2 North Central, #3 South Central, #4 North Puget Sound, #5 Southwest, and #6 Coastal, with the main offices in Olympia|
|Chinook Salmon||An anadromous salmonid of the genus Oncorhynchus and species tshawytscha. Also known as king, spring, or blackmouth salmon.|
|Blackmouth Salmon||Blackmouth salmon in Puget Sound, are defined as immature Chinook salmon, up to the last year of their lives, at which time they start to sexually mature and develop egg or milt sacks. At that time they would technically become Chinook. The gum line of the mouth of a Blackmouth & Chinook is black in color, hence the nickname, Blackmouth. WDFW has found that if these smolt are not released into the sound until they are yearlings, they tend to loose their desire to migrate to the ocean, so become a resident and provide basically year around fishing.|
|Chum Salmon||An anadromous salmonid of the genus Oncorhynchus and species keta. Also known as dog salmon.|
|Coho Salmon||An anadromous salmonid of the genus Oncorhynchus and species kisutch. Also known as sliver or hooknose salmon.|
|Jack Salmon||A salmon that gets the urge to return to it's home stream a year early. These will be smaller fish, (from 20" or 24" depending on specie). They will be predominately males, (hence the name) but occasionally you will encounter a Jill. The specie in this category are predominately Chinook & Coho.|
The anadromous form of the species Oncorhynchus mykiss. Excludes the resident form.
|Substrate||The material which comprises a stream bottom.|
|Escapement||The number of adult fish returning to a stream that escape mortality from harvest and natural attrition, and comprise a SPAWNING POPULATION for each year of that specie.|
|Escapement goal||A predetermined biologically derived number of salmonids that are not harvested and will be the parent spawners for a wild or hatchery stock of fish.|
|Wild stock||A stock that is sustained by natural spawning and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless of parentage (includes native).|
|Natural fish||This stock is known as any salmon that would be from a river system where there is no longer a wild run present, so would be the protégé of hatchery fish, but is NOT FIN clipped. In these watersheds it may be hatched on the gravel from either wild or hatchery stock, or a combination thereof.|
|Redd||A spawning site for a pair of natural salmon or steelhead where eggs are buried in stream gravels for incubation and hatching|
|Fishery Resource Manager||A tribe, or the State of Washington represented by the Department of Fish and Wildlife, with authority and responsibility over the management of harvest and hatchery programs affecting steelhead.|
|Fish hatchery||A complex built to raise young salmon/trout to compensate for a mitigation of loss of spawning areas, or depleted fish populations caused by over-fishing in an effort to restore the fish population.||
|Hatchery Production||Hatchery Production refers to the fish that are reared and released from an artificial culture in a hatchery situation.|
|Integrated Hatchery Program||The term Integrated Hatchery Program describes the intended reproductive relationship of a hatchery population relative to the local, naturally spawning population between which gene flow occurs. The principal goal of an Integrated Hatchery Program is to manage the broodstock as an artificially propagated component of a naturally spawning population wherein the natural environment drives adaptation and fitness of a composite population of fish that spawns both in a hatchery and in the wild. (See HSRG 2004a)|
|Segregated Hatchery Program||The term Segregated Hatchery Program describes the intended reproductive relationship of a hatchery population relative to a naturally spawning population which are reproductively isolated from one another. The principal intent is to propagate a genetically segregated hatchery stock that is adapted to perform more optimally in artificial culture than in the wild, irrespective of the ability of returning adults to reproduce naturally or confer any benefits to naturally spawning populations. (see HSRG 2004b).|
|Stock||The fish spawning in a particular lake or stream(s) at a particular season, which fish to a substantial degree do not interbreed with any group spawning in a different place, or in the same place at a different season. (WDF et al. 1993|
|Fertilized Eggs||Here the eggs have been fertilized & have been sorted for dead or unfertilized ones.||
|Eyed Eggs||Fertilized eggs that have developed to the point that you can actually see the eyes of the young fish to be.|
|Alevin||The life stage of a salmonid between hatching from the egg and emergence from the stream gravels as a fry. The alevin stage is characterized by the presence of a yolk sac, which provides nutrition while the alevin develops in the protected gravel riverbed.||
|Emergence||The act of salmon fry leaving the gravel nest.|
also known as Parr
|A juvenile salmonid that has emerged from the gravel and are up to one month of age or any cultured salmonid from hatching through fourteen days after the being of feeding. Shown here these small fish, (about 1 1/4" long) are being transferred from an hatching/ rearing tank into buckets (about 4,000 total in the 5 gallon bucket) to be transported into a more widespread rearing water of the same watershed. The bucket will have an oxygen aerator inserted to ensure the oxygen in the water does not become deprived because of the quantity of them.||
|Fingerling||Juvenile salmonids up to nine months of age and generally two to four inches in total length|
salmonid which has reared in-stream and is preparing to enter the ocean.
Smolts exchange the spotted camouflage of the stream for the chrome of the
At the the smolt stage the body chemistry changes, allowing them to live in salt water.
Any fish in the family Salmonidae
|URB||Up River Bright is a regular Chinook of a more streamlined body than a Tule and usually associated with being in rivers above Bonneville Dam|
|BUB||Bonneville Upriver Brights|
|BPH||Bonneville Pool Hatchery|
|PUB||Pool Upriver Brights|
|Tule||Tule, a fall Chinook salmon originating from the Toutle River that is known to be a stockier built fish (football shaped) than the URB, and usually associated with returning in rivers below Bonneville Dam. They tend to be more sexually mature right out of the ocean & turn color more readily when in freshwater. Some fishers consider them inferior tablefare.|
Refers to the number of fish of a given management unit destined for their ultimate spawning location. This number shall include terminal harvest and estimates of natural escapement whether total or index and total hatchery escapement.
|Natural Production||Natural production refers to fish that spawn and rear entirely in the natural environment. These fish may be the offspring of natural or hatchery production.|
|Nutrient Enhancement|| Research
over the past decade in Washington, British Columbia and Alaska has
demonstrated the critical role salmon play in transporting nutrients from
the Pacific Ocean to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the Pacific
Northwest. The Hatcheries Division worked aggressively with Regional
Fishery Enhancement Groups and other local organizations, primarily
volunteers, to distribute the carcasses of adult salmonids used for
broodstock at WDFW hatcheries back into watersheds.
Because the movement of fresh carcasses between watersheds has limitations due to the risk of spreading fish pathogens, WDFW has taken a leadership role in international conferences dealing with the development of approved alternatives such as processed carcasses (pasturized briquettes) or fertilizers to replace the lack of nutrients in streams with poor adult returns.
|Predation||This can be in
many forms as in the wild, life is that of survival. For fish,
predation on them can us as fisherpersons, or it be many birds that feed
on the small out-migrating fingerling or smolt. The most likely bird encountered in freshwater will be
King Fishers, Terns or Cormorants.
The mature returning salmon thru the bays & lower rivers may well have to pass the gauntlet of Seals and Sea Lions on their return trip
|OA3||Ocean Age 3, refers to returning Coho|
|Ocean Environment||Here is where most of the salmon spend most of their adult life. Ocean conditions that are beneficial to plankton, shrimp, herring/anchovy, etc. are needed to produce a food chain with enough food for these fish to thrive.|
|Viability Stressors||Habitat, harvest, or hatchery actions that affect population VSP attributes (abundance, productivity, diversity, spatial structure) in a way that currently results in a significant reduction in the viability of a population.|
|Kype||The hooked jaw many male salmon develop during spawning.|
|Strays||Individual fish that breed in a population other than that of its parents. This is mother natures way of compensating for devastation flooding in certain streams or to expand the gene pool. A small percentage of the retuning spawning fish tend to not go to their home stream, but pick may one nearby.|
|Fish Sampler||An WDFW employee who records statistics of recreational & commercial landings, taking scale samples, checking for CWT plus recording length & sex.|
|Kokanee||The freshwater form of the sockeye salmon. Kokanee spend their entire life in freshwater, and in some lakes are known as silver trout|
|Mortality||Fish mortality, hooking mortality, net drop out and marine mammal take|
|Induced Fishing Mortality||Fish mortality above and beyond that which would occur in the absence of fishing activities (e.g. hooking mortality, net drop out and marine mammal take), and which is not reflected in landed catch records.|
Management Council as 32 pages of these, here are a few commonly used
|AABM||Aggregate Abundance Based Management As a participant in the U.S. – Canada Pacific Salmon Treaty, the parties are obligated to provide sound, biologically based information on salmon stocks originating in and returning to the southern states that are exploited in PST fisheries. As Washington & Oregon fall chinook from migrate to the north after leaving their home river systems, and are taken in Alaskan and British Columbia commercial troll and recreational fisheries. These fisheries are managed by the Pacific Salmon Commission (PSC) under an abundance-based management scheme. To successfully accomplish this, participating states such as Washington & Oregon must provide the Commission with reliable information on the in-river catch and escapement of fall chinook for the river sytems involved.|
|ABC||Acceptable Biological Catch The ABC is based on the overfishing limit and should take into account scientific uncertainty, a stock’slife history and reproductive potential, and vulnerability to overfishing. The ABC should account for theuncertainty around the estimate of a stock’s biomass and its overfishing limit. This is a policy decision.|
Limit An ACL can be
equal to or less than the ABC. It takes into account management as well as
scientific uncertainty. The ACL is somewhat vaguely defined by National
Standard 1, but in general it is established at a level that will minimize
the chance of overfishing. This is a policy decision based on the OFL, P*,
|ACT||Annual Catch Target The ACT is an amount of annual catch of a stock or stock complex that is the management target of the fishery. A stock or stock complex’s ACT should usually be less than its ACL and results from the application of the ACT control rule. If sector-ACLs have been established, each one should have a sector-ACT. Designation of an ACT is not required under the Magnuson-Stevens Act.|
|AM||Adaptive Management is an iterative process whereby monitoring and evaluation drive the fish management decision-making process. In other words, as information is gained, the knowledge base is expanded, which allows decision-making to direct future monitoring and evaluation to areas that improve future management.|
|AMP||Adaptive Management Plan is an iterative process whereby monitoring and evaluation drive the fish management decision-making process. In other words, as information is gained, the knowledge base is expanded, which allows decision-making to direct future monitoring and evaluation to areas that improve future management.|
Allocation Unit is a management unit or group of management units for which harvest shares are calculated. Prior court orders specify that an allocation unit comprises the steelhead returning to a single river system flowing into saltwater. The parties may, by agreement, specify different allocation units.
Artificial Production refers to the fish that are reared and released from an artificial culture setting such as a hatchery or other non-natural situation.
|APR||Annual Project Review|
Benefit-Risk Assessment Program provides a consistent method for evaluating hatcheries and cooperative projects. The procedure includes a: (1) scientific assessment of the potential risks posed by an artificial production program (developed with the western Washington tribes and National Marine Fisheries Service); (2) framework for balancing the potential risks and benefits of the program in the ecological context of the watershed; and (3) planning tool to describe alternative future scenarios and the management actions required to reach each scenario.
|BRP||Biological Reference Point|
|BS||Brood Stock are adult fish used to gather eggs & sperm for hatchery production.|
|CFFF||Cowlitz Falls Fish Facility|
|CPS||Coastal Pelagic Species|
|CPUE||Catch Per Unit Effort|
|CWT||Coded Wire Tag a method of inserting a coded wire tag onto usually the nose of usually a salmon, which can be detected in caught fish by "wonding". Whereby that portion of the nose is cut off & the tag can be recovered allowing technicians to identify where & when that fish originated from.|
|DFG||Derelict Fishing Gear. For removal guidelines CLICK HERE|
|DNR||Department of Natural Resources|
|DOE||Washington State Department of Ecology|
|EEZ||Exclusive Economic Zone (from 3-200 miles from shore)|
|EFH||Essential Fish Habitat|
|EIS||Environmental Impact Statement describes different ways the proposal could be implemented and identifies the environmental impacts of these alternatives. This presents the decision-maker with a range of choices along with information about the pros and cons of each choice.|
|ER||Exploitation Rate is the number of fish harvested expressed as a percentage of the estimated total run size and shall include all harvest related mortality|
(ESA) became law in 1973 and is the highest form of protective legislation
for non human species within the United States. Like many other
forms of governmental policy, the ESA has a Federal level of rules and
regulations and has another format, which is separately defined within
each state. Due to this type of set up, a species may be listed as
Endangered on the state level and may not be listed on the federal level.
There are currently 27 stocks of salmon and steelhead listed under the
Endangered Species Act (ESA).
ESA has become the driver for many fishing regulations, in that seasons are many times built around run timings to protect these endangered fish. With the implementation of adipose clipped fin hatchery fish, now fish management can direct a fishery away from the ESA protected fish by allowing only the clipped fish to be retained.
Evolutionarily Significant Unit
|EFP||Exempted Fishing Permit|
|FERC||Federal Energy Regulatory Commission|
|FHMP||Fisheries & Hatchery Management Plan Cowlitz River Fish hatchery Management Plan|
|FMEP||Fisheries Management Evaluation Plan|
|FM||Fathom A unit of measure that equals 6'|
|FL||Fork Length, a measurement of the length of fish from the nose to the inside of the tails fork.|
This plan outlines objectives &
guides the implementation of fisheries in Washington State, under the
co-managers' jurisdiction. But it considers the total harvest
impacts of all fisheries, including those in Alaska and British Columbia,
to assure that conservation objectives that assures the state management
units are achieved.
The plan describes the technical derivation of these objectives, and how these guidelines are applied to annual harvest planning. Accounting for the total fishery-related mortality includes incidental harvest in fisheries directed at other salmon species, and non-landed Chinook mortality.
|FNU||Formazin Nephelometric Units FNU is a measurement of water turbidity, also sometimes referred to as FTU, Formazin Turbidity Unit|
|FRAM||Fishery Regulation Assessment Model|
|FCMA||Fisheries Conservation & Management Act|
|FBD||Future Brood Document|
|FTC||Fisheries Technical Committee, Cowlitz River|
|GIS||Geographic Information System|
|GSI||Genetic Stock Identification|
Guideline “Harvest guideline”
is a generic term that refers to the amount of harvest allowed for any
particular fishing season. The harvest guideline can include
specifications such as period allotments, research set-asides, or
incidental catch set-asides.
|HOR||Hatchery Origin Recruit. Hatchery raised & fin clipped|
In a 1999 report to the US Congress a group of leading scientists determined that
the potential exists for hatcheries to provide significant benefits to the
recovery of naturally spawning salmon populations. Congress
responded in 2000 by creating and funding the Puget Sound and Coastal
Washington Hatchery Reform Project, a systematic, science-based redesign
of hatchery programs to achieve two goals.
This extensive review of all state hatcheries was completed in 2007 & adopted by WDFW commission in 2009
|IATTC||Inter-American Tropical Tunas Commission|
|IFQ||Individual Fishing Quota|
Integrated Hatchery Operations Team
Virus is a negative-sense
single-stranded RNA virus. It causes the disease known as
infectious hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid fish like trout and salmon.
IHNV is commonly found in the Pacific Coast of Canada and the USA, and has
also been found in Europe and Japan. IHNV is transmitted following
shedding of the virus in the feces, urine, sexual fluids, and external
mucus and by direct contact or close contact with surrounding water. The
virus gains entry into fish at the base of the fins.
Clinical signs of infection with IHNV include abdominal distension, bulging of the eyes, skin darkening, anemia and fading of the gills. Infected fish commonly hemorrhage in several areas; the mouth and behind the head, the pectoral fins, muscles near the anus, and (in fry) the yolk sac. Diseased fish weaken eventually floating “belly-up” on the surface of the water. Necrosis is common in the kidney and spleen, and sometimes in the liver.
|ISBM||Individual Stock-Based Management|
|ISIT||In Season Implementation Tool|
|ISU||In Season Update|
|KRFC||Klamath River Fall Chinook|
|LCN||Lower Columbia River Natural (coho)|
|LCR||Lower Columbia River (natural Tule Chinook) returning to rivers below Bonneville Dam|
|LIDAR||Light Detection And Ranging an optical remote sensing technology|
|LRH||Lower River Hatchery (Tule fall Chinook) returning to hatcheries below Bonneville Dam|
Wild (bright fall Chinook spawning naturally in
|LWD||Large Woody Debris|
|M&E||Monitoring & Evaluation Plan|
|MM||Mass Marking is a term used in reference to adipose fin clipping when done in a high volume & directly related to providing a means of selective harvesting of salmon.|
Management Period is the time interval during which regulatory actions are taken to meet the escapement requirements for a management unit or the allocation requirements for an allocation unit, taking into account catches of the units made outside the management period. Management periods are specific to each management unit (or aggregate of management units) and to each fishing area through which the unit(s) pass.
|MPA||Marine Protected Area is essentially a marine reserve where no fishing is allowed|
|MW||Management Weeks is represent the time period from Sunday through Saturday beginning with the initiation of the annual accounting period for steelhead, and continuing through the completion of the accounting period for winter steelhead. (See appendix|
|MU||Management Unit is a stock or group of stocks, which are aggregated for the purpose of achieving a desired spawning escapement objective.|
|MS||Marked Selective this pertains to any fishery that is a selective harvest, as in releasing "wild" unclipped salmon & retaining only hatchery raised clipped fish.|
|MSA||Magnuson-Stevens Act is a Federal fishery conservation and management act designed to provide for the conservation and management of the fisheries, and for other purposes. Public Law 94-265 As amended through October 11, 1996|
|MSH||Maximum Sustained Harvest Level is a biological reference point (Caddy and McMahon 1995) representing the stock size that will support largest level of harvest mortality that can be maintained indefinitely without diminishing the productive capacity of the resource, given current conditions of habitat and environmental fluctuations.|
Maximum Sustainable Yield is theoretically, the largest yield/catch that can be taken from a species' stock over an indefinite period.
|NEPA||The National Environment Policy Act requires federal agencies to evaluate, and disclose to the public, the environmental impacts of any major action they are planning. Since NMFS implements Council management proposals, it must also meet this environmental impact analysis requirement. Like other agencies, the Council may prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or an Environmental Assessment (EA).|
|NF||North Fork (as pertaining to a river system)|
|NMFS||National Marine Fisheries Service Link to their website|
|NOAA||National Oceanic & Atmospheric Association Link to their website|
|NOF||North Of Falcon process, in 1984, state and tribal fisheries managers created a new forum to jointly manage fisheries for salmon and other species in "inside" waters. It was tough at first, but now North of Falcon is recognized as a cornerstone of co-management.|
|NOR||Natural Origin Recruit, Wild or Natural fish, non hatchery, not fin clipped|
|NWIFC||Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission Link to their website|
|OCN||Oregon Coastal Natural (Coho)|
Fishing Limit An
estimate of the maximum yield a stock can withstand without being put in
jeopardy of overfishing. This is a scientific (rather than policy)
|OPI||Oregon Production Index (Coho salmon stock index south of Leadbetter Point)|
|ODWF||Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife Link to their website|
Yield OY is the desired yield
from a stock, complex, or fishery. OY specification is supposed to
prevent overfishing so should consider scientific and management
uncertainty in addition to ecological, economic, and social factors. OY is
sometimes considered an overall guide rather than a hard number.
A multiplier that equates to the risk of reaching the overfishing limit. A
high P* of 0.5 means there is a 50% risk of overfishing. A low P* of 0.1
means a 10% risk of overfishing. This is a scientific (rather than policy)
|PFMC||Pacific Fishery Management Council is one of eight regional fishery management councils established by the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 for the purpose of managing fisheries 3-200 miles offshore of the United States of America coastline. The Pacific Council is responsible for fisheries off the coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington. Link to their website|
|PHABSIM||Physical Habitat Simulation is a definition usually associated with development of water retention impoundments|
|pNOS||Proportion (%) of Natural Origin Spawners contributing to the natural spawning population (HRSG, 2004a).|
|pHOB||Proportion (%) of Hatchery Origin Broodstock contributing to a hatchery broodstock (HRSG, 2004a).|
|pNOB||Proportion (%) of Natural Origin Broodstock contributing to a hatchery broodstock (HRSG, 2004a).|
|PNI||Proportion (%) of Natural Influence PNI = pNOB/(pHOS + pNOB). The HSRG guideline is that genetic broodstock management will enable the natural environment to drive adaptation and fitness of a composite hatchery and natural population where the proportion of natural-origin fish in the broodstock exceeds the proportion of hatchery-origin fish on the spawning grounds (PNI > 0.50). For stocks of moderate or high biological significance and viability, PNI should exceed 0.7, and a minimum of 0.1 to avoid divergence of the hatchery population from the natural component, even when pHOS is zero (HSRG a).|
|PUD||Public Utilities District|
|PSREOC||Puget Sound Recreational Enhancement Oversight Committee is a committee of knowledgeable people appointed by the WDFW director to oversee the enhancement of Puget Sound fisheries, namely salmon, but with long term bottom-fish in mind also. The original intent was to carry on the promotion of raising & releasing of Blackmouth Salmon in the sound. This is funded by the previous PS salmon enhancement stamp that now has evolved as a percentage from the new salmon license.|
|PSC||Pacific Salmon Commission|
Act, Public Law 99-5, approved March 15, 1985, (16 U.S.C. 3631)
implements the Pacific Salmon Treaty between the U.S. and Canada, January
28, 1985; establishes the requirements for Commissioners and the
subsidiary Northern, Southern, and Fraser River Panels; and authorizes
Federal regulatory preemption by the Secretary of Commerce to meet treaty
The Act authorized creation of an advisory committee to assist the U.S. Section and U.S. Panel Sections, and authorizes appropriations of such sums as may be necessary for carrying out the purposes and provisions of the Treaty and Act. This Act also repealed the Sockeye Salmon (or Pink Salmon) Fishing Act of July 29, 1947, and abolished the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission.
|RCA||Rockfish Conservation Area is an area usually described by GPS Latitude & Longitude numbers that is closed to fishing at all areas OR which may be open during a halibut season in that area, (read the pamphlet). You can pass thru these areas, but can not stop & fish for anything.|
|RCW||Revised Code of Washington|
Rebuilding Exploitation Rate
Regional Fisheries Enhancement Group are non-profit, community-based organizations dedicated to enhancing salmon populations. There are 14 RGEGs in the state of Washington that share the same unique role of working within their community across the state to recover salmon. Volunteers learn about salmon habitat, plant trees, count returning salmon, perform habitat assessments, conduct water quality monitoring, teach others, & much more.
|RM||River Mile A statute mile measured along the center line of a river. River mile measurements start at the stream mouth (RM 0.0).|
|RMP||Resource Management Plan|
Recruit per Spawner
|RMZ||Riparian Management Zones is the distance from the water that human activity can take place. Timber harvest, housing, farming, just about everything.|
Incubators are used to rear the eggs of salmonids
on-site, in remote stream reaches. Eggs are taken from brood fish
and mixed with milt from males. The fertilized eggs are transplanted
to the RSI location. The eggs are placed in an egg tray in the
incubator. Water flows down through a pipe from a small dam into the
incubator, flowing over the eggs, and leaves through an outlet. The flow
rate can be adjusted by the operator.
Eggs usually hatch in a couple weeks. The fry go down in the substrate gravel & stay there until the egg sack has been consumed (usually another 3-4 weeks). They then flow out of the substrate in the incubator once they are able to swim on their own. The small fry develop into fingerlings and seek cover on the margin of the stream, in slack water.
|SA||Settlement Agreement, Cowlitz River Hydroelectric Project|
|SAFE||Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation|
|SASSI||Salmon and Steelhead Stock Inventory is an inventory of naturally reproducing fish in Washington State - the first step in the statewide Wild Stock Restoration Initiative. SASSI provides an approach for developing a list of salmon and steelhead stocks and a process for rating their current status. Stock lists, classifications and ratings will be updated as additional information becomes available.|
|SDC||Status Determination Criteria|
|SF||Sorth Fork (as pertaining to a river system)|
|SRFI||Snake River Fall Index (Chinook)|
|SSC||Scientific and Statistical Committee|
|SSHIAP||Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Assessment Program which provides a common inventory of wild stock populations and habitat conditions. This program is a map-based databank of habitat conditions, is a prime example of the type of collaboration which involves local governments, landowners and others in that effort.|
|STAR||Stock Assessment Review|
|STT||Salmon Technical Team|
|SWAG||Scientific Wild Ass Guess (?????)|
|SWFSC||Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS)|
|SWR||Southwest Region (NMFS)|
|TAC||Total Allowable Catch|
|TAC||Technical Advisory Committee U.S. v Oregon Technical Advisory Committee created in 2008 & extends until 2017 which is composed of members of both Washington & Oregon that monitor & update salmon in the Columbia River|
Terminal Harvest Rates Total harvest, divided by total runsize, shown as a percentage
|TRT||Technical Review Team|
|URB||Up River Bright Chinook salmon that originate & return above Bonneville dam|
|USFS||U.S. Forest Service|
|USFWS||U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service|
|USGS||U.S. Geological Survey|
|VSI||Visual Stock Identification is simply visually observing & identifying the fish.|
|VSPP||Viable Salmonid Population Parameters are parameters that are used to evaluate the status of given stock. The four parameters are abundance (A), productivity (P), diversity (D), and spatial distribution (S) (McElhany et al. 2000).|
|VSP||Viable Salmonid Population is a salmonid population that has a negligible risk of extinction over a specified time period. For example, in the the purposed Willapa plan, a viable steelhead population is one that has a less than 5% probability of extinction over at least 100 years.|
|VTR||Voluntary Trip Report is a report available to sport fisherpersons, where by they can record the number, size & location of fish, both retained or released & reported back top WDFW|
|WAC||Washington Administrative Code|
|WAU||Watershed Administrative Unit|
|WCVI||West Coast Vancouver Island|
|WCPFC||Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission|
|Washington Department of Fisheries was the old department that was in charge of commercial fishing|
|WDFW||Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife Link to their website||
|WRIA||Water Resource Inventory Area|
|WWTIT||Western Washington Treaty Indian Tribes|
MORE COMING AS TIME ALLOWS
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Established 07-24-08, Last modified 05-23-2016