Acronyms & Definitions of Fish Related Names Used by Fish Management

 

 

For some newcomers (and even old-timers) to the world of fishing & fish management, listed below are fish related names and descriptions or explanations as to their usage to help you better understand

SALMON FACTS FROM WDFW INFORMATION PAGE CLICK HERE
 

LIST OF TERMS USED IN FISH MANAGEMENT

Adipose Fin

The small fin on the top just in front of the tail of salmonoid fish.  This fin is clipped on most all of the released hatchery fish, distinguishing them from wild fish.  This identification method is later used on mature returning fish to protect the wild (unclipped) ESA listed fish.  The above process is sometimes called Mass Marking because of the volume now being done.

An often over-looked sexual characteristic in Pacific salmon is the enlarged adipose fin on mature males, typically 2-3 time larger than on female fish.

AHA Currently computer models, the AHA system, (All H. Analyzer) which is abbreviated for "Hatchery, Harvest, Habitat, Hydro" is used (using WDFW data) to calculate PNI (percentage of natural Influence) in broodstock, which is pHOB plus pNOS
Anadromous Fish that are born in freshwater, migrate to the ocean to grow and mature, and return to freshwater as adults to reproduce.
Bi-Op Biological Opinions.  This is generally related to the responsibility for recovering threatened and endangered species with "the best available science."
Harvest 

That act or activities associated with the utilization (retention and non-retention) of fish for cultural, consumptive, commercial and/or recreational purposes. 

Healthy and Harvestable  A self-sustaining naturally produced stock that has attained a status that will support meaningful retention and non-retention fisheries on an annual basis.
Natural Production  Natural production refers to fish that spawn and rear entirely in the natural environment.  These fish may be the offspring of natural or hatchery production.   
Selective Harvest Selective Harvest in regards to fishing, is the ability of a fishing operation to avoid non-target species or stocks, or when encountered, to capture and release them in a manner that minimizes mortality.  Where there are mixed stocks and/or mixed species present, the fisheries should be appropriately managed to meet the conservation needs of the “weakest stock” present.

The objective harvesting goal of hatchery salmon and trout (fin clipped) while at the same time, is allowing wild (unclipped) to escape and spawn in their native streams.   Any harvest of our public resource needs to be monitored with seasons and bag limits for ALL stakeholders and set for a sustained or increased population, with emphasis placed on conservation if there is any question.  

WFDW regulations in many areas require the fisherperson to not remove the unclipped adipose fined fish from the water & release it with as little damage as possible, trying to eliminate a post release mortality.

Commission The Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission consists of nine members serving six-year terms.   Members are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate.   Three members must reside east of the summit of the Cascade mountains, three must reside west of the summit, and three may reside anywhere in the state. No two Commissioners may reside in the same county.

While the Commission has several responsibilities, its primary role is to establish policy and direction for fish and wildlife species and their habitats in Washington and to monitor the Department's implementation of the goals, policies and objectives established by the Commission.

The Commission receives its authority from the passage of Referendum 45 by the 1995 Legislature and public at the 1995 general election.  The Commission is the supervising authority for the Department.

Director Hopefully a person with great experience and wisdom in fish management with the ability to organize a large department, who is charged by the "Commission" to oversee the day by day operations of WDFW
Regions Washington State is divided up into 6 different regions, each overseen by a regional director.  #1 Eastern, #2 North Central, #3 South Central, #4 North Puget Sound, #5 Southwest, and #6 Coastal, with the main offices in Olympia
Chinook Salmon An anadromous salmonid of the genus Oncorhynchus and species tshawytscha.  Also known as king, spring, or blackmouth salmon.
Blackmouth Salmon Blackmouth salmon in Puget Sound, are defined as immature Chinook salmon, up to the last year of their lives, at which time they start to sexually mature and develop egg or milt sacks.   At that time they would technically become Chinook.  The gum line of the mouth of a Blackmouth & Chinook is black in color, hence the nickname, Blackmouth.  WDFW has found that if these smolt are not released into the sound until they are yearlings, they tend to loose their desire to migrate to the ocean, so become a resident and provide basically year around fishing.
Chum Salmon An anadromous salmonid of the genus Oncorhynchus and species keta.  Also known as dog salmon.
Coho Salmon An anadromous salmonid of the genus Oncorhynchus and species kisutch.  Also known as sliver or hooknose salmon.
Jack Salmon A salmon that gets the urge to return to it's home stream a year early.  These will be smaller fish, (from 20" or 24" depending on specie).  They will be predominately males, (hence the name) but occasionally you will encounter a Jill.  The specie in this category are predominately Chinook & Coho.
Steelhead 

The anadromous form of the species Oncorhynchus mykiss. Excludes the resident form.

Substrate The material which comprises a stream bottom.
Escapement The number of adult fish returning to a stream that escape mortality from harvest and natural attrition, and comprise a SPAWNING POPULATION for each year of that specie.
Escapement goal A predetermined biologically derived number of salmonids that are not harvested and will be the parent spawners for a wild or hatchery stock of fish.
Wild stock A stock that is sustained by natural spawning and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless of parentage (includes native).
Natural fish This stock is known as any salmon that would be from a river system where there is no longer a wild run present, so would be the protégé of hatchery fish, but is NOT FIN clipped.  In these watersheds it may be hatched on the gravel from either wild or hatchery stock, or a combination thereof.
Redd A spawning site for a pair of natural salmon or steelhead where eggs are buried in stream gravels for incubation and hatching
Fishery Resource Manager  A tribe, or the State of Washington represented by the Department of Fish and Wildlife, with authority and responsibility over the management of harvest and hatchery programs affecting steelhead. 
Fish hatchery A complex built to raise young salmon/trout to compensate for a mitigation of loss of spawning areas, or depleted fish populations caused by over-fishing in an effort to restore the fish population.

Hatchery Production  Hatchery Production refers to the fish that are reared and released from an artificial culture in a hatchery situation. 
Integrated Hatchery Program  The term Integrated Hatchery Program describes the intended reproductive relationship of a hatchery population relative to the local, naturally spawning population between which gene flow occurs.  The principal goal of an Integrated Hatchery Program is to manage the broodstock as an artificially propagated component of a naturally spawning population wherein the natural environment drives adaptation and fitness of a composite population of fish that spawns both in a hatchery and in the wild. (See HSRG 2004a)
Segregated Hatchery Program  The term Segregated Hatchery Program describes the intended reproductive relationship of a hatchery population relative to a naturally spawning population which are reproductively isolated from one another.  The principal intent is to propagate a genetically segregated hatchery stock that is adapted to perform more optimally in artificial culture than in the wild, irrespective of the ability of returning adults to reproduce naturally or confer any benefits to naturally spawning populations. (see HSRG 2004b).
Stock  The fish spawning in a particular lake or stream(s) at a particular season, which fish to a substantial degree do not interbreed with any group spawning in a different place, or in the same place at a different season. (WDF et al. 1993
Fertilized Eggs Here the eggs have been fertilized & have been sorted for dead or unfertilized ones.

Eyed Eggs Fertilized eggs that have developed to the point that you can actually see the eyes of the young fish to be.  
Alevin The life stage of a salmonid between hatching from the egg and emergence from the stream gravels as a fry. The alevin stage is characterized by the presence of a yolk sac, which provides nutrition while the alevin develops in the protected gravel riverbed.

 

Emergence The act of salmon fry leaving the gravel nest.  
Fry

 also known as Parr

A juvenile salmonid that has emerged from the gravel and are up to one month of age or any cultured salmonid from hatching through fourteen days after the being of feeding.   Shown here these small fish, (about 1 1/4" long) are being transferred from an hatching/ rearing tank into buckets (about 4,000 total in the 5 gallon bucket) to be transported into a more widespread rearing water of the same watershed.  The bucket will have an oxygen aerator inserted to ensure the oxygen in the water does not become deprived because of the quantity of them.

 

Fingerling Juvenile salmonids up to nine months of age and generally two to four inches in total length  
Smolt A juvenile salmonid which has reared in-stream and is preparing to enter the ocean.  Smolts exchange the spotted camouflage of the stream for the chrome of the ocean.

At the the smolt stage the body chemistry changes, allowing them to live in salt water.  

Salmonid

Any fish in the family Salmonidae

URB Up River Bright  is a regular Chinook of a more streamlined body than a Tule and usually associated with being in rivers above Bonneville Dam
BUB Bonneville Upriver Brights
BPH Bonneville Pool Hatchery
PUB Pool Upriver Brights
Tule Tule,  a fall Chinook salmon originating from the Toutle River that is known to be a stockier built fish (football shaped) than the URB, and usually associated with returning in rivers below Bonneville Dam.  They tend to be more sexually mature right out of the ocean & turn color more readily when in freshwater.  Some fishers consider them inferior tablefare.
Run-Size  

 Refers to the number of fish of a given management unit destined for their ultimate spawning location.  This number shall include terminal harvest and estimates of natural escapement whether total or index and total hatchery escapement. 

Natural Production Natural production refers to fish that spawn and rear entirely in the natural environment.  These fish may be the offspring of natural or hatchery production.   
Nutrient Enhancement  Research over the past decade in Washington, British Columbia and Alaska has demonstrated the critical role salmon play in transporting nutrients from the Pacific Ocean to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The Hatcheries Division worked aggressively with Regional Fishery Enhancement Groups and other local organizations, primarily volunteers, to distribute the carcasses of adult salmonids used for broodstock at WDFW hatcheries back into watersheds.

Because the movement of fresh carcasses between watersheds has limitations due to the risk of spreading fish pathogens, WDFW has taken a leadership role in international conferences dealing with the development of approved alternatives such as processed carcasses (pasturized briquettes) or fertilizers to replace the lack of nutrients in streams with poor adult returns.

Predation This can be in many forms as in the wild, life is that of survival.  For fish, predation on them can us as fisherpersons, or it be many birds that feed on the small out-migrating fingerling or smolt.  The most likely bird encountered in freshwater will be King Fishers, Terns or Cormorants.

The mature returning salmon thru the bays & lower rivers may well have to pass the gauntlet of Seals and Sea Lions on their return trip
 
OA3 Ocean Age 3, refers to returning Coho
Ocean Environment Here is where most of the salmon spend most of their adult life.  Ocean conditions that are beneficial to plankton, shrimp, herring/anchovy, etc. are needed to produce a food chain with enough food for these fish to thrive.
Viability Stressors   Habitat, harvest, or hatchery actions that affect population VSP attributes (abundance, productivity, diversity, spatial structure) in a way that currently results in a significant reduction in the viability of a population.
Kype The hooked jaw many male salmon develop during spawning.
Strays Individual fish that breed in a population other than that of its parents.  This is mother natures way of compensating for devastation flooding in certain streams or to expand the gene pool.  A small percentage of the retuning spawning fish tend to not go to their home stream, but pick may one nearby.
Fish Sampler An WDFW employee who records statistics of recreational & commercial landings, taking scale samples, checking for CWT plus recording length & sex.
Kokanee The freshwater form of the sockeye salmon. Kokanee spend their entire life in freshwater, and in some lakes are known as silver trout
Mortality  Fish mortality,  hooking mortality, net drop out and marine mammal take
Induced Fishing Mortality  Fish mortality above and beyond that which would occur in the absence of fishing activities (e.g. hooking mortality, net drop out and marine mammal take), and which is not reflected in landed catch records.
     


LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS NORMALLY ASSOCIATED WITH FISH MANAGEMENT

Pacific Fisheries Management Council as 32 pages of these, here are a few commonly used ones.

AABM Aggregate Abundance Based Management    As a participant in the U.S. – Canada Pacific Salmon Treaty, the parties are obligated to provide sound, biologically based information on salmon stocks originating in and returning to the southern states that are exploited in PST fisheries.  As Washington & Oregon fall chinook from migrate to the north after leaving their home river systems, and are taken in Alaskan and British Columbia commercial troll and recreational fisheries. These fisheries are managed by the Pacific Salmon Commission (PSC) under an abundance-based management scheme. To successfully accomplish this, participating states such as Washington & Oregon must provide the Commission with reliable information on the in-river catch and escapement of fall chinook for the river sytems involved.
ABC Acceptable Biological Catch  The ABC is based on the overfishing limit and should take into account scientific uncertainty, a stock’slife history and reproductive potential, and vulnerability to overfishing. The ABC should account for theuncertainty around the estimate of a stock’s biomass and its overfishing limit. This is a policy decision.
ACL Annual Catch Limit   An ACL can be equal to or less than the ABC. It takes into account management as well as scientific uncertainty. The ACL is somewhat vaguely defined by National Standard 1, but in general it is established at a level that will minimize the chance of overfishing. This is a policy decision based on the OFL, P*, and ACL.
 
ACT Annual Catch Target   The ACT is an amount of annual catch of a stock or stock complex that is the management target of the fishery. A stock or stock complex’s ACT should usually be less than its ACL and results from the application of the ACT control rule. If sector-ACLs have been established, each one should have a sector-ACT. Designation of an ACT is not required under the Magnuson-Stevens Act.
AEQ Adult Equivalent
AM Adaptive Management is an iterative process whereby monitoring and evaluation drive the fish management decision-making process. In other words, as information is gained, the knowledge base is expanded, which allows decision-making to direct future monitoring and evaluation to areas that improve future management. 
AMP Adaptive Management Plan is an iterative process whereby monitoring and evaluation drive the fish management decision-making process. In other words, as information is gained, the knowledge base is expanded, which allows decision-making to direct future monitoring and evaluation to areas that improve future management. 
AU

Allocation Unit is a management unit or group of management units for which harvest shares are calculated. Prior court orders specify that an allocation unit comprises the steelhead returning to a single river system flowing into saltwater.  The parties may, by agreement, specify different allocation units.

AP

Artificial Production refers to the fish that are reared and released from an artificial culture setting such as a hatchery or other non-natural situation. 

APR Annual Project Review
BRAP

Benefit-Risk Assessment Program  provides a consistent method for evaluating hatcheries and cooperative projects.  The procedure includes a: (1) scientific assessment of the potential risks posed by an artificial production program (developed with the western Washington tribes and National Marine Fisheries Service); (2) framework for balancing the potential risks and benefits of the program in the ecological context of the watershed; and (3) planning tool to describe alternative future scenarios and the management actions required to reach each scenario.

BRP    Biological Reference Point
BO Biological Opinion
BS Brood Stock  are adult fish used to gather eggs & sperm for hatchery production.
CFFF Cowlitz Falls Fish Facility
CPS Coastal Pelagic Species
CPUE Catch Per Unit Effort
CWT Coded Wire Tag   a method of inserting a coded wire tag onto usually the nose of usually a salmon, which can be detected in caught fish by "wonding".  Whereby that portion of the nose is cut off & the tag can be recovered allowing technicians to identify where & when that fish originated from.
DFG Derelict Fishing Gear.   For removal guidelines CLICK HERE  
DNR Department of Natural Resources
DO Dissolved Oxygen
DOE Washington State Department of Ecology
EA Environmental Assessment
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone (from 3-200 miles from shore)
EFH Essential Fish Habitat
EIS Environmental Impact Statement describes different ways the proposal could be implemented and identifies the environmental impacts of these alternatives. This presents the decision-maker with a range of choices along with information about the pros and cons of each choice.
ER  Exploitation Rate is the number of fish harvested expressed as a percentage of the estimated total run size and shall include all harvest related mortality
ESA Endangered Specie Act,  (ESA) became law in 1973 and is the highest form of protective legislation for non human species within the United States.  Like many other forms of governmental policy, the ESA has a Federal level of rules and regulations and has another format, which is separately defined within each state.  Due to this type of set up, a species may be listed as Endangered on the state level and may not be listed on the federal level.  There are currently 27 stocks of salmon and steelhead listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).

ESA has become the driver for many fishing regulations, in that seasons are many times built around run timings to protect these endangered fish.  With the implementation of adipose clipped fin hatchery fish, now fish management can direct a fishery away from the ESA protected fish by allowing only the clipped fish to be retained.

ESU

Evolutionarily Significant Unit

EFP Exempted Fishing Permit
FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FHMP Fisheries & Hatchery Management Plan    Cowlitz River Fish hatchery Management Plan
FMEP Fisheries Management Evaluation Plan   
FM Fathom  A unit of measure that equals 6'
FL Fork Length, a measurement of the length of fish from the nose to the inside of the tails fork.
FMP    Fishery Management Plan  This plan outlines objectives & guides the implementation of fisheries in Washington State, under the co-managers' jurisdiction.   But it considers the total harvest impacts of all fisheries, including those in Alaska and British Columbia, to assure that conservation objectives that assures the state management units are achieved.

The plan describes the technical derivation of these objectives, and how these guidelines are applied to annual harvest planning.  Accounting for the total fishery-related mortality includes incidental harvest in fisheries directed at other salmon species, and non-landed Chinook mortality.

FNU Formazin Nephelometric Units   FNU is a measurement of water turbidity, also sometimes referred to as FTU, Formazin Turbidity Unit
FRAM Fishery Regulation Assessment Model
FCMA Fisheries Conservation & Management Act
FBD Future Brood Document
FTC Fisheries Technical Committee,   Cowlitz River
GIS Geographic Information System
GSI Genetic Stock Identification
HG Harvest Guideline  “Harvest guideline” is a generic term that refers to the amount of harvest allowed for any particular fishing season. The harvest guideline can include specifications such as period allotments, research set-asides, or incidental catch set-asides.
 
HOR Hatchery Origin Recruit.  Hatchery raised & fin clipped
HSRG Hatchery Scientific Review Group.  In a 1999 report to the US Congress a group of leading scientists determined that the potential exists for hatcheries to provide significant benefits to the recovery of naturally spawning salmon populations.  Congress responded in 2000 by creating and funding the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project, a systematic, science-based redesign of hatchery programs to achieve two goals.
  • help conserve wild salmon and steelhead populations; and
  • support sustainable fisheries.

  • This extensive review of all state hatcheries was completed in 2007 & adopted by WDFW commission in 2009
    IATTC Inter-American Tropical Tunas Commission
    IFQ Individual Fishing Quota
    IHOT

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team

    IHNV Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus  is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus.   It causes the disease known as infectious hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid fish like trout and salmon.   IHNV is commonly found in the Pacific Coast of Canada and the USA, and has also been found in Europe and Japan.  IHNV is transmitted following shedding of the virus in the feces, urine, sexual fluids, and external mucus and by direct contact or close contact with surrounding water. The virus gains entry into fish at the base of the fins.

    Clinical signs of infection with IHNV include abdominal distension, bulging of the eyes, skin darkening, anemia and fading of the gills. Infected fish commonly hemorrhage in several areas; the mouth and behind the head, the pectoral fins, muscles near the anus, and (in fry) the yolk sac. Diseased fish weaken eventually floating “belly-up” on the surface of the water. Necrosis is common in the kidney and spleen, and sometimes in the liver.
    ISBM Individual Stock-Based Management  
    ISIT In Season Implementation Tool
    ISU In Season Update
    KRFC Klamath River Fall Chinook
    LCN Lower Columbia River Natural (coho)
    LCR Lower Columbia River (natural Tule Chinook) returning to rivers below Bonneville Dam
    LIDAR Light Detection And Ranging  an optical remote sensing technology
    LRH Lower River Hatchery (Tule fall Chinook) returning to hatcheries below Bonneville Dam
    LRW Lower Columbia River Wild (bright fall Chinook spawning naturally in tributaries below
    Bonneville Dam)
    LWD Large Woody Debris
    M&E Monitoring &  Evaluation Plan
    MM Mass Marking is a term used in reference to adipose fin clipping when done in a high volume & directly related to providing a means of selective harvesting of salmon.
    MP

    Management Period  is the time interval during which regulatory actions are taken to meet the escapement requirements for a management unit or the allocation requirements for an allocation unit, taking into account catches of the units made outside the management period.  Management periods are specific to each management unit (or aggregate of management units) and to each fishing area through which the unit(s) pass.

    MPA Marine Protected Area is essentially a marine reserve where no fishing is allowed
    MW Management Weeks  is represent the time period from Sunday through Saturday beginning with the initiation of the annual accounting period for steelhead, and continuing through the completion of the accounting period for winter steelhead.  (See appendix
    MU Management Unit  is a stock or group of stocks, which are aggregated for the purpose of achieving a desired spawning escapement objective.
    MS Marked Selective  this pertains to any fishery that is a selective harvest, as in releasing "wild" unclipped salmon & retaining only hatchery raised clipped fish.
    MSA Magnuson-Stevens Act  is a Federal fishery conservation and management act designed to provide for the conservation and management of the fisheries, and for other purposes.   Public Law 94-265  As amended through October 11, 1996  
    MSH    Maximum Sustained Harvest  Level is a biological reference point (Caddy and McMahon 1995) representing the stock size that will support largest level of harvest mortality that can be maintained indefinitely without diminishing the productive capacity of the resource, given current conditions of habitat and environmental fluctuations.
    MSY  

    Maximum Sustainable Yield  is theoretically, the largest yield/catch that can be taken from a species' stock over an indefinite period.  

    MT Metric Ton
    NA Not Available
    NEPA The National Environment Policy Act  requires federal agencies to evaluate, and disclose to the public, the environmental impacts of any major action they are planning.   Since NMFS implements Council management proposals, it must also meet this environmental impact analysis requirement.   Like other agencies, the Council may prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or an Environmental Assessment (EA).  
    NF North Fork (as pertaining to a river system)
    NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service   Link to their website
    NOAA National Oceanic & Atmospheric Association   Link to their website
    NOF North Of Falcon process, in 1984, state and tribal fisheries managers created a new forum to jointly manage fisheries for salmon and other species in "inside" waters.  It was tough at first, but now North of Falcon is recognized as a cornerstone of co-management.
    NOR Natural Origin Recruit,   Wild or Natural fish, non hatchery, not fin clipped
    NWIFC Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission   Link to their website
    OCN Oregon Coastal Natural (Coho)
    OFL Over Fishing Limit  An estimate of the maximum yield a stock can withstand without being put in jeopardy of overfishing. This is a scientific (rather than policy) determination.
     
    OPI Oregon Production Index (Coho salmon stock index south of Leadbetter Point)
    ODWF Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife   Link to their website
    OY Optimum Yield  OY is the desired yield from a stock, complex, or fishery.  OY specification is supposed to prevent overfishing so should consider scientific and management uncertainty in addition to ecological, economic, and social factors. OY is sometimes considered an overall guide rather than a hard number.
     
    P* P-Star   A multiplier that equates to the risk of reaching the overfishing limit. A high P* of 0.5 means there is a 50% risk of overfishing. A low P* of 0.1 means a 10% risk of overfishing. This is a scientific (rather than policy) determination.
     
    PFMC Pacific Fishery Management Council  is one of eight regional fishery management councils established by the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 for the purpose of managing fisheries 3-200 miles offshore of the United States of America coastline.  The Pacific Council is responsible for fisheries off the coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington.   Link to their website
    PHABSIM Physical Habitat Simulation is a definition usually associated with development of water retention impoundments
    pNOS  Proportion (%) of Natural Origin Spawners contributing to the natural spawning population (HRSG, 2004a).
    pHOB  Proportion (%) of Hatchery Origin Broodstock contributing to a hatchery broodstock (HRSG, 2004a).
    pNOB Proportion (%) of Natural Origin Broodstock contributing to a hatchery broodstock (HRSG, 2004a).
    PNI Proportion (%) of Natural Influence    PNI = pNOB/(pHOS + pNOB).  The HSRG guideline is that genetic broodstock management will enable the natural environment to drive adaptation and fitness of a composite hatchery and natural population where the proportion of natural-origin fish in the broodstock exceeds the proportion of hatchery-origin fish on the spawning grounds (PNI > 0.50).  For stocks of moderate or high biological significance and viability, PNI should exceed 0.7, and a minimum of 0.1 to avoid divergence of the hatchery population from the natural component, even when pHOS is zero (HSRG a).
    PUD  Public Utilities District
    PSREOC Puget Sound Recreational Enhancement Oversight Committee is a committee of knowledgeable people appointed by the WDFW director to oversee the enhancement of Puget Sound fisheries, namely salmon, but with long term bottom-fish in mind also.  The original intent was to carry on the promotion of raising & releasing of Blackmouth Salmon in the sound.  This is funded by the previous PS salmon enhancement stamp that now has evolved as a percentage from the new salmon license.
    PSC Pacific Salmon Commission
    PST Pacific Salmon Treaty  This Act,  Public Law 99-5, approved March 15, 1985, (16 U.S.C. 3631) implements the Pacific Salmon Treaty between the U.S. and Canada, January 28, 1985; establishes the requirements for Commissioners and the subsidiary Northern, Southern, and Fraser River Panels; and authorizes Federal regulatory preemption by the Secretary of Commerce to meet treaty obligations.

    The Act authorized creation of an advisory committee to assist the U.S. Section and U.S. Panel Sections, and authorizes appropriations of such sums as may be necessary for carrying out the purposes and provisions of the Treaty and Act.  This Act also repealed the Sockeye Salmon (or Pink Salmon) Fishing Act of July 29, 1947, and abolished the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission.

    RCA Rockfish Conservation Area is an area usually described by GPS Latitude & Longitude numbers that is closed to fishing at all areas OR which may be open during a halibut season in that area, (read the pamphlet).  You can pass thru these areas, but can not stop & fish for anything.
    RCW Revised Code of Washington
    RER

    Rebuilding Exploitation Rate

    RFEG

    Regional Fisheries Enhancement Group are non-profit, community-based organizations dedicated to enhancing salmon populations.  There are 14 RGEGs in the state of Washington that share the same unique role of working within their community across  the state to recover salmon.  Volunteers learn about salmon habitat, plant trees, count returning salmon, perform habitat assessments, conduct water quality monitoring, teach others, & much more.    

    RM River Mile  A statute mile measured along the center line of a river.  River mile measurements start at the stream mouth (RM 0.0).
    RMP Resource Management Plan
    R/S 

    Recruit per Spawner

    RMZ Riparian Management Zones is the distance from the water that human activity can take place. Timber harvest, housing, farming, just about everything.
    RSI Remote Site Incubators  are used to rear the eggs of salmonids on-site, in remote stream reaches.  Eggs are taken from brood fish and mixed with milt from males.  The fertilized eggs are transplanted to the RSI location.  The eggs are placed in an egg tray in the incubator.  Water flows down through a pipe from a small dam into the incubator, flowing over the eggs, and leaves through an outlet. The flow rate can be adjusted by the operator.

    Eggs usually hatch in a couple weeks.  The fry go down in the substrate gravel & stay there until the egg sack has been consumed (usually another 3-4 weeks).  They then flow out of the substrate in the incubator once they are able to swim on their own.  The small fry develop into fingerlings and seek cover on the margin of the stream, in slack water.
    SA Settlement Agreement,  Cowlitz River Hydroelectric Project
    SAFE Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation       
    SAR Smolt-to-Adult  Return
    SASSI Salmon and Steelhead Stock Inventory  is an inventory of naturally reproducing fish in Washington State - the first step in the statewide Wild Stock Restoration Initiative.  SASSI provides an approach for developing a list of salmon and steelhead stocks and a process for rating their current status.  Stock lists, classifications and ratings will be updated as additional information becomes available.
    SDC Status Determination Criteria
    SF Sorth Fork (as pertaining to a river system)
    SRFI Snake River Fall  Index (Chinook)
    SSC Scientific and Statistical Committee
    SSHIAP Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Assessment Program  which provides a common inventory of wild stock populations and habitat conditions.  This program is a map-based databank of habitat conditions, is a prime example of the type of collaboration  which involves local governments, landowners and others in that effort.
    STAR Stock Assessment Review
    STT Salmon Technical Team
    SWAG Scientific Wild Ass Guess   (?????)
    SWFSC Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS)
    SWR Southwest Region (NMFS)
    TAC Total Allowable Catch  
    TAC Technical Advisory Committee    U.S. v Oregon Technical Advisory Committee  created in 2008 & extends until 2017 which is composed of members of both Washington & Oregon that monitor & update salmon in the Columbia River
    THR

    Terminal Harvest Rates  Total harvest, divided by total runsize,  shown as a percentage

    TRT  Technical Review Team
    URB Up River Bright  Chinook salmon that originate & return above Bonneville dam
    USFS U.S. Forest Service
    USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    USGS U.S. Geological Survey
    VSI Visual Stock Identification is simply visually observing & identifying the fish.
    VSPP Viable Salmonid Population Parameters are parameters that are used to evaluate the status of given stock. The four parameters are abundance (A), productivity (P), diversity (D), and spatial distribution (S) (McElhany et al. 2000). 
    VSP    Viable Salmonid Population is a salmonid population that has a negligible risk of extinction over a specified time period.  For example, in the the purposed Willapa plan, a viable steelhead population is one that has a less than 5% probability of extinction over at least 100 years.
    VTR Voluntary Trip Report  is a report available to sport fisherpersons, where by they can record the number, size & location of fish, both retained or released & reported back top WDFW
    WAC Washington Administrative Code
    WAU Watershed Administrative Unit
    WCVI West Coast Vancouver Island
    WCPFC Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission

    WDF

    Washington Department of Fisheries was the old department that was in charge of commercial fishing
    WDFW Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife   Link to their website

    WRIA Water Resource Inventory Area
    WWTIT Western Washington Treaty Indian Tribes
         

     

    MORE COMING AS TIME ALLOWS

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    Established 07-24-08, Last modified 05-23-2016